ALOS/ALOS-2 PALSAR/PALSAR-2 Annual Mosaics 20bee1b3b700445691148814a0fcab1e

Keywords data used; ALOS PALSAR, data used; ALOS-2 PALSAR-2, datasets; ALOS/ALOS-2 PALSAR/PALSAR-2, data used; JERS SAR, datasets; JERS SAR, index:SAR

Background

The ALOS/ALOS2 PALSAR is a global 25 m resolution dataset that combines data from many images captured by JAXA’s PALSAR and PALSAR-2 sensors on ALOS-1 and ALOS-2 satellites respectively. This product contains radar measurement in L-band and in HH and HV polarizations. It has a spatial resolution of 25m and is available annually for 2007 to 2010 (ALOS/PALSAR) and 2015 to 2018 (ALOS-2/PALSAR-2). ALOS/ALOS2 PALSAR mosaic data is part of a global dataset provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Earth Observation Research Center. Historically, the JERS annual mosaic is generated from images acquired by the SAR sensor on the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1) satellite.

DE Africa’s ALOS/ALOS-2 PALSAR/PALSAR-2 and JERS annual mosaic are Normalized Radar Backscatter data, for which Radiometric Terrain Correction (RTC) has been applied so data acquired with different imaging geometries over the same region.The relevant coverage and metadata of ALOS/ALOS2 PALSAR dataset can be viewed on DE Africa Metadata Explorer while JERS dataset coverage can be access via this link that forms a single, cohesive Analysis Ready Data (ARD) package, which allows you to analyse radar backscatter data as-is without the need to apply additional corrections.

Important details:

  • ALOS/ALOS2 PALSAR annual mosaic product specifications

    • Number of bands: 5

    • To achieve backscatter in decibel unit, convert backscatter values in Digital Number (DN) using $ 10 * log10(DN^2) - 83.0 $

    • Mask specification includes 0 for no-data, 50 for water, 100 for lay_over, 150 for shadowing and 255 for land

    • Observation date is expressed as days after launch, which are Jan. 24, 2006 and May. 24, 2014 for PALSAR and PALSAR-2 respectively.

    • Native pixel alignment is centre

    • Date-range: selected years from 2007 to 2018

    • Spatial resolution: 25 x 25 m

  • JERS annual mosaic product specifications

    • Number of bands: 4

    • To achieve backscatter in decibel unit, convert backscatter values in Digital Number (DN) using $ 10 * log10(DN^2) - 84.66 $

    • Mask specification includes 0 for no-data, 50 for water, 100 for lay_over, 150 for shadowing and 255 for land

    • Observation date is expressed as days after launch, which is Feb. 11, 1992 for JERS-1.

    • Native pixel alignment is centre

    • Date-range: 1996

    • Spatial resolution: 25 x 25 m

For a detailed description of DE Africa’s ALOS/ALOS2 PALSAR archive, see the DE Africa’s ALOS/ALOS2 technical specifications documentation.

Description

In this notebook we will load ALOS PALSAR data using dc.load() to return a time series of satellite images from a single sensor.

Topics covered include: 1. Inspecting the ALOS PALSAR products and measurements available in the datacube 2. Using the native dc.load() function to load in dual polarization ALOS PALSAR data and visualize 3. Using dc.load() function to load single polarization JERS mosaic and visualize


Getting started

To run this analysis, run all the cells in the notebook, starting with the “Load packages” cell.

Load packages

[1]:
%matplotlib inline
import datacube
import sys
import math
import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
import xarray as xr
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from xarray.ufuncs import isfinite

from deafrica_tools.plotting import rgb
from deafrica_tools.datahandling import load_ard
from deafrica_tools.plotting import display_map
/env/lib/python3.6/site-packages/geopandas/_compat.py:88: UserWarning: The Shapely GEOS version (3.7.2-CAPI-1.11.0 ) is incompatible with the GEOS version PyGEOS was compiled with (3.9.0-CAPI-1.16.2). Conversions between both will be slow.
  shapely_geos_version, geos_capi_version_string

Connect to the datacube

[2]:
dc = datacube.Datacube(app="ALOS")

Available products and measurements

List products

We can use datacube’s list_products functionality to inspect DE Africa’s SAR products that are available in the datacube. The table below shows the product names that we will use to load the data, a brief description of the data, and the satellite instrument that acquired the data.

[3]:
dc.list_products().loc[dc.list_products()['description'].str.contains('SAR')]
[3]:
name description lon instrument platform creation_time format region_code label time lat product_family dataset_maturity product_type crs resolution tile_size spatial_dimensions
id
43 alos_palsar_mosaic ALOS/PALSAR and ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 annual mosaic ... None PALSAR/PALSAR-2 ALOS/ALOS-2 None GeoTIFF NaN None None None NaN NaN NaN EPSG:4326 (-0.000222222222222, 0.000222222222222) (5, 5) (latitude, longitude)
42 jers_sar_mosaic JERS-1 SAR annual mosaic tiles generated for u... None SAR JERS-1 None GeoTIFF NaN None None None NaN NaN NaN EPSG:4326 (-0.000222222222222, 0.000222222222222) (5, 5) (latitude, longitude)

List measurements

We can further inspect the data available for each SAR product using datacube’s list_measurements functionality. The table below lists each of the measurements available in the data.

[4]:
productA = "alos_palsar_mosaic"
[5]:
measurements = dc.list_measurements()
measurements.loc[productA]
[5]:
name dtype units nodata aliases flags_definition
measurement
hh hh uint16 1 0 [hh] NaN
hv hv uint16 1 0 [hv] NaN
date date uint16 1 0 [date] NaN
linci linci uint8 1 0 [local incidence angle, linci, incidence] NaN
mask mask uint8 1 0 [mask] {'category': {'bits': [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]...

Load ALOS PALSAR dataset using dc.load()

Now that we know what products and measurements are available for the products, we can load data from the datacube using dc.load.

In the example below, we will load ALOS PALSAR for Cairo and its surrounding in Egypt between 2007 and 2018.

We will load data from two polarizations, as well as the data mask ('mask') and observation date. The data is loaded in native EPSG:4326 coordinate reference system (CRS). It can be reprojected if output_crs and resolution are defined in the query.

Note: For a more general discussion of how to load data using the datacube, refer to the Introduction to loading data notebook.

[6]:
# Setting the query for area in the proximity of Cairo
lon = (31.90, 32.10)
lat = (30.37, 30.55)
query = {"x": lon,
         "y": lat,
         "time": ("2007", "2018")}

Visualise the selected area

[7]:
display_map(x=lon, y=lat)
[7]:
[8]:
#loading the data with the mask band included
bands = ['hh','hv','mask', 'date']
ds_ALOS = dc.load(product='alos_palsar_mosaic',
             measurements=bands,
             **query)

print(ds_ALOS)
<xarray.Dataset>
Dimensions:      (latitude: 811, longitude: 900, time: 8)
Coordinates:
  * time         (time) datetime64[ns] 2007-07-02T12:00:00 ... 2018-07-02T12:...
  * latitude     (latitude) float64 30.55 30.55 30.55 ... 30.37 30.37 30.37
  * longitude    (longitude) float64 31.9 31.9 31.9 31.9 ... 32.1 32.1 32.1 32.1
    spatial_ref  int32 4326
Data variables:
    hh           (time, latitude, longitude) uint16 3130 1436 1652 ... 749 789
    hv           (time, latitude, longitude) uint16 1564 687 630 ... 376 365 311
    mask         (time, latitude, longitude) uint8 255 255 255 ... 255 255 255
    date         (time, latitude, longitude) uint16 582 582 582 ... 1137 1137
Attributes:
    crs:           EPSG:4326
    grid_mapping:  spatial_ref
[9]:
#creation of a new band (HV/HH = hvhh) for RGB display
ds_ALOS['hvhh'] = ds_ALOS.hv / ds_ALOS.hh
[10]:
# Set the timesteps to visualise
timesteps = [0,3,6]

# Generate RGB plots at each timestep
rgb(ds_ALOS, bands=['hh','hv','hvhh'], index=timesteps)
../../../_images/sandbox_notebooks_Datasets_ALOS_PALSAR_Annual_Mosaic_20_0.png

Inspection of observation date

Each annual mosaic is created from multiple oberservations from a year. This may result in discontinuity across images as seen above. It also means mosaics from different years may come from different seasons.

[11]:
# plot date for a mosaic
ds_ALOS.isel(time=3).date.plot.imshow(robust=True);
../../../_images/sandbox_notebooks_Datasets_ALOS_PALSAR_Annual_Mosaic_22_0.png

The observation date should be considered when evaluating change detected from year to year. In this example, we find the earliest, latest and median observation dates for each mosaic loaded.

[12]:
min_days = ds_ALOS.date.min(dim=['latitude','longitude']).values
max_days = ds_ALOS.date.max(dim=['latitude','longitude']).values
med_days = ds_ALOS.date.median(dim=['latitude','longitude']).astype(min_days.dtype).values
[13]:
# Define ALOS and ALOS-2 launch dates

alos_launch = np.datetime64('2006-01-24')
alos2_launch = np.datetime64('2014-05-24')
[14]:
# Calculate earliest, latest and median observation dates, using launch dates and offsets reported in the date band

indexed_time = ds_ALOS.time.values
min_dates = np.empty(len(indexed_time),dtype='<M8[D]')
max_dates = np.empty(len(indexed_time),dtype='<M8[D]')
med_dates = np.empty(len(indexed_time),dtype='<M8[D]')

for i, time in enumerate(indexed_time):
    if time < np.datetime64('2015'):
        min_dates[i] = alos_launch + np.timedelta64(min_days[i], 'D')
        max_dates[i] = alos_launch + np.timedelta64(max_days[i], 'D')
        med_dates[i] = alos_launch + np.timedelta64(med_days[i], 'D')
    else:
        min_dates[i] = alos2_launch + np.timedelta64(min_days[i], 'D')
        max_dates[i] = alos2_launch + np.timedelta64(max_days[i], 'D')
        med_dates[i] = alos2_launch + np.timedelta64(med_days[i], 'D')

The date ranges below show that the observations can span a few months. Occasionally data used may be from another year.

[15]:
for i in zip(min_dates, max_dates, (max_dates - min_dates).astype(int)): print("Date range and span (in days)", i)
Date range and span (in days) (numpy.datetime64('2007-06-27'), numpy.datetime64('2007-08-29'), 63)
Date range and span (in days) (numpy.datetime64('2008-07-16'), numpy.datetime64('2008-09-29'), 75)
Date range and span (in days) (numpy.datetime64('2009-08-17'), numpy.datetime64('2009-09-03'), 17)
Date range and span (in days) (numpy.datetime64('2010-07-22'), numpy.datetime64('2010-08-20'), 29)
Date range and span (in days) (numpy.datetime64('2015-07-07'), numpy.datetime64('2015-07-07'), 0)
Date range and span (in days) (numpy.datetime64('2016-06-07'), numpy.datetime64('2016-06-07'), 0)
Date range and span (in days) (numpy.datetime64('2017-07-04'), numpy.datetime64('2017-07-04'), 0)
Date range and span (in days) (numpy.datetime64('2017-07-04'), numpy.datetime64('2018-03-27'), 266)
[16]:
# Assign median dates to be the timestamps
ds_ALOS['time'] =  med_dates

Coverting DN Values to Decibel Units

Since Backscatter data is provided as digital number(DN), it can be converted to backscatter in decibel unit to enhance contrast using the provided conversion equation. Before converting to decibel, we also apply the data mask to exclude pixels in radar shadow or with layerover.

[17]:
#convert DN to db values
ds_ALOS['hh_db'] =  10 * np.log10(ds_ALOS.hh.where(ds_ALOS.mask.isin([50,255]))**2) - 83.0
ds_ALOS['hv_db'] =  10 * np.log10(ds_ALOS.hv.where(ds_ALOS.mask.isin([50,255]))**2) - 83.0
ds_ALOS['hvhh_db'] = ds_ALOS['hv_db'] - ds_ALOS ['hh_db']
[18]:
# Set the timesteps to visualise
timesteps = [0,3,6]

# Generate RGB plots at each timestep
rgb(ds_ALOS, bands=['hh_db','hv_db','hvhh_db'], index=timesteps)
../../../_images/sandbox_notebooks_Datasets_ALOS_PALSAR_Annual_Mosaic_33_0.png

Histogram Analysis for ALOS/ALOS-2 PALSAR Dataset

Use histograms to inspect the distribution of backscatter values.

[19]:
#plotting each polorisation bands following converting to dB values
fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, 3, figsize=(14, 4))
ds_ALOS.hh_db.plot.hist(ax=ax[0], facecolor='red')
ds_ALOS.hv_db.plot.hist(ax=ax[1], facecolor='green')
ds_ALOS.hvhh_db.plot.hist(ax=ax[2], facecolor='blue')
plt.tight_layout()
../../../_images/sandbox_notebooks_Datasets_ALOS_PALSAR_Annual_Mosaic_35_0.png

Load JERS dataset using dc.load()

In the example below, we will load JERS annual mosaic for Cairo and its surrounding in Egypt in 1996.

We will load data from HH polarization, as well as the data mask (mask). The data is loaded in native EPSG:4326 coordinate reference system (CRS). It can be reprojected if output_crs and resolution are defined in the query.

Note: For a more general discussion of how to load data using the datacube, refer to the Introduction to loading data notebook.

[20]:
# Setting the query for area in the proximity of Cairo
lon = (31.90, 32.10)
lat = (30.37, 30.55)
query_jers = {"x": lon,
         "y": lat,
         "time": ("1996")}
[21]:
#loading the data with the mask band included
bands = ['hh','mask']
ds_JERS = dc.load(product='jers_sar_mosaic',
             measurements=bands,
             **query_jers)

print(ds_JERS)
<xarray.Dataset>
Dimensions:      (latitude: 811, longitude: 900, time: 1)
Coordinates:
  * time         (time) datetime64[ns] 1996-07-02
  * latitude     (latitude) float64 30.55 30.55 30.55 ... 30.37 30.37 30.37
  * longitude    (longitude) float64 31.9 31.9 31.9 31.9 ... 32.1 32.1 32.1 32.1
    spatial_ref  int32 4326
Data variables:
    hh           (time, latitude, longitude) uint16 6505 6953 4974 ... 2750 2750
    mask         (time, latitude, longitude) uint8 255 255 255 ... 255 255 255
Attributes:
    crs:           EPSG:4326
    grid_mapping:  spatial_ref
[22]:
#convert DN values in JERS dataset to db values
ds_JERS['hh_db'] =  10 * np.log10(ds_JERS.hh.where(ds_JERS.mask.isin([50,255]))**2) - 84.66
[23]:
# Plot all VH observations for the year
ds_JERS.hh_db.plot(cmap="Greys_r", robust=True,size=8);
../../../_images/sandbox_notebooks_Datasets_ALOS_PALSAR_Annual_Mosaic_40_0.png

Histogram Analysis for JERS HH Polarization

Inspect backscatter distribution in this area

[24]:
#plotting each polorisation bands following converting to dB values
fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, 2, figsize=(14, 4))
ds_JERS.hh.plot.hist(ax=ax[0], bins=20, facecolor='red')
ds_JERS.hh_db.plot.hist(ax=ax[1], bins=20, facecolor='green')
plt.tight_layout()
../../../_images/sandbox_notebooks_Datasets_ALOS_PALSAR_Annual_Mosaic_42_0.png

Additional information

License: The code in this notebook is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0. Digital Earth Africa data is licensed under the Creative Commons by Attribution 4.0 license.

Contact: If you need assistance, please post a question on the Open Data Cube Slack channel or on the GIS Stack Exchange using the open-data-cube tag (you can view previously asked questions here). If you would like to report an issue with this notebook, you can file one on Github.

Compatible datacube version:

[25]:
print(datacube.__version__)
1.8.4.dev52+g07bc51a5

Last Tested:

[26]:
from datetime import datetime
datetime.today().strftime('%Y-%m-%d')
[26]:
'2021-04-29'