Cartes de l’étendue des terres cultivées en Afrique

Keywords: datasets; crop_mask, datasets; crop_mask_eastern, datasets; crop_mask_western, datasets; crop_mask_northern, datasets; crop_mask_sahel, datasets; crop_mask_southern, datasets; crop_mask_southeast, datasets; crop_mask_central, datasets; crop_mask_indian_ocean analysis; agriculture, cropland extent

Contexte

La nécessité de garantir les sources de nourriture nécessaires pour subvenir aux besoins de leurs populations est une préoccupation centrale des instances dirigeantes en Afrique. Il a été estimé que la production actuelle de cultures devra doubler d’ici 2050 pour répondre aux besoins futurs en matière de production alimentaire. Les produits de plus haut niveau basés sur les cultures qui peuvent aider à gérer l’insécurité alimentaire, tels que les intensités d’arrosage des cultures, les types de cultures ou la productivité des cultures, nécessitent comme point de départ des cartes précises et exactes de l’étendue des terres cultivées indiquant où elles se trouvent. Les cartes actuelles de l’étendue des terres cultivées sont inexactes, ont une résolution spatiale grossière ou ne sont pas mises à jour régulièrement. Une carte précise, à haute résolution et régulièrement mise à jour de l’étendue des terres cultivées pour le continent africain est donc reconnue comme une lacune dans les services actuels de surveillance des cultures.

Digital Earth Africa’s cropland extent maps for Africa show the estimated location of croplands for the period of January to Decemeber 2019.

For a full description of the product specifications, validation results, and methods used to develop the products, see the Cropland_extent_specifications document.

Description

This notebook will show you how to load, plot, and conduct a simple analysis using the cropland extent product. The steps are as follows:

  1. List the available cropland extent products

  2. Load the crop_mask product

  3. Plotting the different measurements of the crop-mask

  4. Example analysis 1: Identifying crop trends with NDVI

  5. Example analysis 2: Comparison of cropped area with global land cover datasets

  6. Inspect different regions of the crop mask.

For a more detailed example of using the cropland extent product, see the following notebooks:


Getting started

To run this analysis, run all the cells in the notebook, starting with the « Load packages » cell.

Load packages

Import Python packages that are used for the analysis.

[1]:
%matplotlib inline

import datacube
import xarray as xr
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

from deafrica_tools.plotting import display_map
from deafrica_tools.bandindices import calculate_indices
from deafrica_tools.datahandling import load_ard

Connect to the datacube

Connect to the datacube so we can access DE Africa data.

[2]:
dc = datacube.Datacube(app='cropland_extent')

Analysis parameters

This section defines the analysis parameters, including:

  • lat, lon, buffer: center lat/lon and analysis window size for the area of interest

  • time_period: time period to load for the crop mask. Currently, only a map for 2019 is available

  • resolution: the pixel resolution to use for loading the crop_mask_<region>. The native resolution of the product is 10 metres i.e. (-10,10)

The default location is in a extensivley cultivated valley north of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

[3]:
lat, lon = 8.5615, 40.691

buffer = 0.04

time_period = ('2019')

resolution=(-10, 10)

#join lat, lon, buffer to get bounding box
lon_range = (lon - buffer, lon + buffer)
lat_range = (lat + buffer, lat - buffer)

View the selected location

The next cell will display the selected area on an interactive map. Feel free to zoom in and out to get a better understanding of the area you’ll be analysing. Clicking on any point of the map will reveal the latitude and longitude coordinates of that point.

[4]:
display_map(lon_range, lat_range)
[4]:
Make this Notebook Trusted to load map: File -> Trust Notebook

List cropland extent products available in Digital Earth Africa

We can use datacube’s list_measurements functionality to inspect the cropland extent products available in the datacube. The table below shows the product names you can use to load data, and the measurements available for each product. The cropland extent masks come with three measurements: mask, filtered, and prob.

We can see in the table below that there is a single crop_mask product which covers the entire continent. It is comprised of numerous crop_mask_<region> products stitched together. We can use the continental crop_mask products for most applications, though we should be aware of the boundaries of the regional products that comprise it. We will explore this further below.

[5]:
dc_measurements = dc.list_measurements()
dc_measurements.filter(like='crop_mask', axis=0)
[5]:
name dtype units nodata aliases flags_definition
product measurement
crop_mask mask mask uint8 1 255.0 [crop_mask, MASK] NaN
prob prob uint8 1 255.0 [crop_prob, PROB] NaN
filtered filtered uint8 1 255.0 [mode] NaN
crop_mask_central mask mask uint8 1 0.0 [crop_mask, MASK] NaN
prob prob uint8 1 0.0 [crop_prob, PROB] NaN
filtered filtered uint8 1 0.0 [mode] NaN
crop_mask_eastern mask mask uint8 1 0.0 [crop_mask, MASK] NaN
prob prob uint8 1 0.0 [crop_prob, PROB] NaN
filtered filtered uint8 1 0.0 [mode] NaN
crop_mask_indian_ocean mask mask uint8 1 0.0 [crop_mask, MASK] NaN
prob prob uint8 1 0.0 [crop_prob, PROB] NaN
filtered filtered uint8 1 0.0 [mode] NaN
crop_mask_northern mask mask uint8 1 0.0 [crop_mask, MASK] NaN
prob prob uint8 1 0.0 [crop_prob, PROB] NaN
filtered filtered uint8 1 0.0 [mode] NaN
crop_mask_sahel mask mask uint8 1 0.0 [crop_mask, MASK] NaN
prob prob uint8 1 0.0 [crop_prob, PROB] NaN
filtered filtered uint8 1 0.0 [mode] NaN
crop_mask_southeast mask mask uint8 1 0.0 [crop_mask, MASK] NaN
prob prob uint8 1 0.0 [crop_prob, PROB] NaN
filtered filtered uint8 1 0.0 [mode] NaN
crop_mask_southern mask mask uint8 1 0.0 [crop_mask, MASK] NaN
prob prob uint8 1 0.0 [crop_prob, PROB] NaN
filtered filtered uint8 1 0.0 [mode] NaN
crop_mask_western mask mask uint8 1 0.0 [crop_mask, MASK] NaN
prob prob uint8 1 0.0 [crop_prob, PROB] NaN
filtered filtered uint8 1 0.0 [mode] NaN

Loading the cropland extent product

In this example, we will load the 'crop_mask' product.

[6]:
# generate a query object from the analysis parameters
query = {
    'time': time_period,
    'x': lon_range,
    'y': lat_range,
    'resolution':resolution
}

# now load the crop-mask using the query
cm = dc.load(product='crop_mask',
             **query).squeeze()
print(cm)
<xarray.Dataset>
Dimensions:      (y: 1011, x: 773)
Coordinates:
    time         datetime64[ns] 2019-07-02T11:59:59.999999
  * y            (y) float64 1.093e+06 1.093e+06 ... 1.083e+06 1.083e+06
  * x            (x) float64 3.922e+06 3.922e+06 3.922e+06 ... 3.93e+06 3.93e+06
    spatial_ref  int32 6933
Data variables:
    mask         (y, x) uint8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
    prob         (y, x) uint8 41 41 41 45 43 45 40 36 ... 14 17 18 24 22 23 22
    filtered     (y, x) uint8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Attributes:
    crs:           EPSG:6933
    grid_mapping:  spatial_ref

Plotting the cropland extent

Above, we can see the crop_mask products contains three measurements:

  • mask : Cette bande affiche les régions cultivées sous forme de carte binaire. Les valeurs de 1 indiquent la présence de cultures, tandis qu’une valeur de 0 indique l’absence de cultures. Cette bande est une carte d’étendue des terres cultivées basée sur les pixels, ce qui signifie que la carte affiche la sortie brute de la classification Random Forest basée sur les pixels.

  • prob: This band displays the prediction probabilities for the “crop” class. As this service uses a random forest classifier, the prediction probabilities refer to the percentage of trees that voted for the random forest classification. For example, if the model had 200 decision trees in the random forest, and 150 of the trees voted “crop”, the prediction probability is 150 / 200 x 100 = 75 %. Thresholding this band at > 50 % will produce a map identical to mask.

  • filtered: This band displays cropped regions as a binary map. Values of 1 indicate the presence of crops, while a value of 0 indicates the absence of cropping. This band is an object-based cropland extent map where the mask band has been filtered using an image segmentation algorithm (see this paper for details on the algorithm used). During this process, segments smaller than 1 Ha (100 10m x 10m pixels) are merged with neighbouring segments, resulting in a map where the smallest classified region is 1 Ha in size. The filtered dataset is provided as a complement to the mask band; small commission errors are removed by object-based filtering, and the “salt and pepper” effect typical of classifying pixels is diminished.

Below, we will plot the three measurements side-by-side:

[7]:
fig, axes = plt.subplots(1, 3, figsize=(24, 8))
cm.mask.where(cm.mask<255).plot(ax=axes[0], # we filter to <255 to omit missing data
                   cmap='Greens',
                   add_labels=False)

cm.filtered.where(cm.filtered<255).plot(ax=axes[1],
                   cmap='Blues',
                   add_labels=False)

cm.prob.where(cm.prob<255).plot(ax=axes[2],
                   cmap='magma',
                   add_labels=False)

axes[0].set_title('"Mask": pixel-based cropland extent')
axes[1].set_title('"Filtered": object-based cropland extent')
axes[2].set_title('"Prob": Probabilities of cropland');

plt.tight_layout();
../../../_images/sandbox_notebooks_Datasets_Cropland_extent_18_0.png

Calculate NDVI

[9]:
ds = calculate_indices(ds, 'NDVI', drop=True, satellite_mission='s2')
Dropping bands ['red', 'nir']

Resample the dataset to monthly time-steps

[10]:
ds = ds.NDVI.resample(time='MS').mean()

#plot the result
ds.plot.imshow(col='time', col_wrap=6, vmin=0, vmax=0.9);
../../../_images/sandbox_notebooks_Datasets_Cropland_extent_24_0.png

Mask with the cropland extent map

Using the measurement filtered, we can mask the dataset with the crop_mask product.

[11]:
#Filter out the no-data pixels (255) and non-crop pixels (0) from the crop-mask 'filtered' band and
#mask using 'filtered' band.
ds = ds.where(cm.filtered == 1)

ds.plot.imshow(col='time', col_wrap=6, vmin=0, vmax=0.9);
../../../_images/sandbox_notebooks_Datasets_Cropland_extent_26_0.png

Plot an interactive map

If you zoom in you can examine the dominant land cover classes in the region (hint, there’s a lot of agriculture!)

[14]:
display_map(lon_range, lat_range)
[14]:
Make this Notebook Trusted to load map: File -> Trust Notebook

Load the cropland extent, ESRI’s Landcover product, and ESA’s WorldCover product

[15]:
# generate a query object from the analysis parameters
query = {
    'x': lon_range,
    'y': lat_range,
    'resolution':resolution
}

# now load the crop-mask using the query
cm = dc.load(product='crop_mask_eastern', measurements=['mask'], **query, time='2019').squeeze()

#load the two landcover datasets for the year 2020.
lulc_esa = dc.load(product='esa_worldcover', time="2020", measurements='classification', like=cm.geobox).squeeze()
lulc_esri = dc.load(product='io_lulc', time="2020-07", measurements='classification', like=cm.geobox).squeeze()

Reclassify the landcover datasets to a binary crop/non-crop image to allow a straightforward comparison with DE Africa’s cropland extent map

[16]:
esri_crops = xr.where(lulc_esri['classification']==5, 1, 0)
esa_crops = xr.where(lulc_esa['classification']==40, 1, 0)

Filter out the no-data pixels (255) from the crop-mask mask band.

[17]:
cm_mask = cm.mask.where(cm.mask != 255)

Plot the cropping extent of the three datasets

[18]:
fig,ax=plt.subplots(1,3, sharey=True, figsize=(21,7))
cm_mask.plot.imshow(ax=ax[0], add_colorbar=False)
esri_crops.plot.imshow(ax=ax[1], add_colorbar=False)
esa_crops.plot.imshow(ax=ax[2], add_colorbar=False)
ax[0].set_title('DE Africa Cropland Extent')
ax[1].set_title('ESRI Land Cover, cropland class')
ax[2].set_title('ESA Worldcover, cropland class')
plt.tight_layout();
../../../_images/sandbox_notebooks_Datasets_Cropland_extent_41_0.png

Calculate the cropped area in each product

In this example, you’ll see that DE Africa’s cropland product maps a lot more cropping than the two global landcover products. In this example, the DE Africa product is more accurate than the landcover datasets. However, over wetlands in the south-west of Lake Kyoga DE Afria’s product incorrectly maps some of the wetlands as cropping, while the landcover datasets do not. While there are regions where DE AFrica’s cropland extent maps have errors, in general they are much more accurate than any of the currently existing landcover datasets over Africa.

[19]:
pixel_length = query["resolution"][1]
m_per_km = 1000  # conversion from metres to kilometres
area_per_pixel = pixel_length**2 / m_per_km**2
[20]:
cm_area = cm_mask.sum().data * area_per_pixel
esri_area = esri_crops.sum().data * area_per_pixel
esa_area = esa_crops.sum().data * area_per_pixel

label = ['DEAfr crop mask', 'ESRI crops', 'ESA crops']
plt.bar(label, [cm_area,esri_area,esa_area])
plt.ylabel("Area (Sq. km)")
plt.title('Cropped Area Comparison');
../../../_images/sandbox_notebooks_Datasets_Cropland_extent_44_0.png

Regional crop mask boundaries

As we saw in the datasets table, the crop_mask is comprised of numerous regional products stitched together. We can load and use the continental crop_mask product for most applications. However, we may observe some unusual artefacts at the boundaries of regional crop masks which are worth being aware of. We will investigate this below.

First, we will define and inspect an area on the borders of Uganda, Rwanda, and DR Congo. This also forms the border the crop_mask_central and crop_mask_eastern. We can inspect the extent of each regional product on the Digital Earth Africa Maps Platform.

[21]:
lat, lon = -0.83, 29.58

buffer = 1.0

resolution=(-60, 60) #resample to load larger area

#join lat, lon, buffer to get bounding box
lon_range = (lon - buffer, lon + buffer)
lat_range = (lat + buffer, lat - buffer)
[22]:
display_map(lon_range, lat_range)
[22]:
Make this Notebook Trusted to load map: File -> Trust Notebook
[23]:
query = {
    'x': lon_range,
    'y': lat_range,
    'resolution':resolution
}

Load regional crop masks

Below, we load the continental product in addtion to both the central and eastern crop masks. We do this by using the region argument in dc.load.

[24]:
cm = dc.load(product='crop_mask',
             measurements=['mask'],
             time='2019',
             **query).squeeze()

cm_east = dc.load(
             product='crop_mask',
             region='eastern',
             measurements=['mask'],
             time='2019',
             **query).squeeze()

cm_central = dc.load(
             product='crop_mask',
             region='central',
             measurements=['mask'],
             time='2019',
             **query).squeeze()

Plot regional products

[25]:
fig, axes = plt.subplots(1, 3, figsize=(24, 8))
cm.mask.where(cm.mask<255).plot(ax=axes[0], # we filter to <255 to omit missing data
                   cmap='Greens',
                   add_labels=False)

cm_east.mask.where(cm_east.mask<255).plot(ax=axes[1],
                   cmap='Greens',
                   add_labels=False)

cm_central.mask.where(cm_central.mask<255).plot(ax=axes[2],
                   cmap='Greens',
                   add_labels=False)

axes[0].set_title('Crop mask- continental')
axes[1].set_title('Crop mask- eastern')
axes[2].set_title('Crop mask- central');

plt.tight_layout();
../../../_images/sandbox_notebooks_Datasets_Cropland_extent_52_0.png

Additional information

License: The code in this notebook is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0. Digital Earth Africa data is licensed under the Creative Commons by Attribution 4.0 license.

Contact: If you need assistance, please post a question on the Open Data Cube Slack channel or on the GIS Stack Exchange using the open-data-cube tag (you can view previously asked questions here). If you would like to repoart an issue with this notebook, you can file one on Github.

Compatible datacube version:

[26]:
print(datacube.__version__)
1.8.6

Last Tested:

[27]:
from datetime import datetime
datetime.today().strftime('%Y-%m-%d')
[27]:
'2022-08-15'